HEALTH

Acute renal failure.

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Acute kidney failure occurs when the kidneys suddenly cannot remove waste products from the blood. When the kidneys lose their filtering function, the amount of dangerous wastes increases, resulting in an imbalance in blood chemistry.

Acute kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney failure or acute kidney injury, occurs quickly, usually within a few days. Acute kidney failure often occurs in people who are already hospitalized, especially those who are critically ill and require intensive care.

Acute renal failure can be fatal and requires extensive treatment. However, acute kidney failure can be treated. If you are in good health, your kidney function may be normal or close to normal.

Symptoms
Symptoms of acute kidney failure may include:

Sometimes the urine output may still be normal, even if the urine output is decreased
Fluid retention that causes swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
Shortness of breath
tired
confusion
nausea
Weaknesses
irregular heartbeat
Chest pain or pressure
In severe cases, convulsions and coma
Sometimes, acute kidney failure is asymptomatic and can be detected by laboratory tests for other reasons.

When do you see a doctor?
If you experience symptoms of acute kidney failure, see your doctor immediately or seek emergency medical care.

Request an appointment at the Mayo Clinic
for reasons
Acute kidney failure can occur in the following cases.

If you have a disease that slows down blood flow to the kidneys
If you have direct kidney damage
If your kidney’s ureters (ureters) are blocked and waste products cannot be passed out of the body through urine
Poor renal blood flow
Diseases and disorders that slow down blood flow to the kidneys and cause kidney damage include:

loss of blood or fluid
blood pressure medication
heart attack
heart disease
infection
liver failure
Taking aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve, others), or related medications
severe allergic reaction (hypersensitivity)
severe burns
severe dehydration
Kidney damage
These diseases, conditions, and factors can damage the kidneys and cause acute kidney failure.

Blood clots form in the kidney and its surrounding blood vessels and arteries
Cholesterol deposits in the kidneys block blood flow
Glomerulonephritis: inflammation of the small kidney filters (glomeruli)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome, a condition that causes early damage to red blood cells
An infection, such as the virus causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Lupus is an immune system disorder that causes glomerulonephritis
Medicines such as certain chemotherapy drugs, antibiotics, and dyes used in imaging tests
A scleroderma is a group of rare diseases that affect the skin and connective tissue
Thrombocytopenic purpura, a rare blood disorder
Toxic substances such as alcohol, heavy metals, and cocaine
Breakdown of muscle tissue (rhabdomyolysis) leading to kidney damage due to toxins produced by muscle tissue damage
Degeneration of cancer cells (tumor lysis syndrome) leads to the release of toxins that cause kidney damage.
Obstruction of the urinary tract in the kidney
Diseases and disorders that lead to urinary retention (blockage of the urinary tract) and acute kidney injury are:

Bladder cancer
Blood clots form in the urinary tract
Cervical cancer
Colon cancer
enlarged prostate gland
Kidney stones
Nerve damage to the nerves that control the bladder
prostate cancer
risk factors
Acute renal failure is almost always associated with another disease or event. Conditions that increase the risk of acute kidney failure include:

Transfer to a hospital, especially in severe cases requiring intensive care
old age
Clogged arteries in your arms and legs (peripheral artery disease)
diabetes
Hypertension
heart failure
Kidney disease
Liver disease
Some types of cancer and their treatment
Complications
Possible complications of acute renal failure include:

Fluid accumulation. Acute kidney failure can cause fluid to build up in the lungs and cause shortness of breath.
Chest pain; If the lining that covers your heart (pericardium) is irritated, you may experience chest pain.
muscle weakness; When your body’s fluids and electrolytes are out of balance, it can cause muscle weakness.
Permanent kidney damage. Sometimes, acute kidney failure can cause permanent damage to kidney function or lead to end-stage kidney disease. People with end-stage kidney disease often need permanent dialysis — a mechanical purification process used to remove toxins and waste products from the body — or a kidney transplant to stay alive.
Death. Acute kidney failure leads to complete loss of kidney function and eventually death.
protection
Acute renal failure is difficult to predict and prevent. But you can reduce your risk by protecting your kidneys

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