Blue Tech Barometer 2022/23

General ranking



The overall rankings tab compares the performance of the examined economies to each other and aggregates scores across four pillars: marine environment, marine operations, technological innovation and regulatory policy.

This column ranks each country by its level of seawater pollution, plastic recycling efforts, CO2 emissions from marine activities (based on the size of its economy), and recent changes in total emissions.

This column ranks each country on the sustainability of maritime activities, including maritime transport, fisheries and protected areas.

This column ranks each country based on its contribution to research and development of sustainable ocean technologies, including spending, patents, and startups.

This column ranks each country’s position on policies and regulations related to ocean sustainability, including national policies, taxes, fees, subsidies, and enforcement of international maritime law.

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MIT Technology Review Insights is grateful to the following individuals for their time, perspective, and insight.

  • Valerie Amant, Director of Communications at The SeaCleaners
  • Charlotte de Fontaubert, World Bank Group Global Lead for the Blue Economy

  • Ian Falconer, Founder of Fishy Filaments

  • Ben Fitzgerald, CEO, CoreMarine

  • Melissa Garvey, Global Director of Ocean Conservation, The Nature Conservancy

  • Michael Hadfield, Professor Emeritus and Principal Investigator, Kewalo Marine Laboratory, University of Hawaii at Manoa

  • Takeshi Kawano, Executive Director of the Japan Agency for Marine and Earth Science and Technology

  • Kathryn Matthews, Oceana State Senior Scientist

  • Alex Rogers, Scientific Director, REV Ocean

  • Owais Sarmad, Deputy Executive Secretary, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  • Thierry Senechal, CEO of Finance for Impact

  • Jyotika Virmani, Executive Director, Schmidt Marine Institute

  • Lucy Woodall, Associate Professor of Marine Biology, University of Oxford, Principal Scientist at Nekton

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Methodology: Blue Technology Barometer 2022/23

Now in its second year, the Blue Technology Barometer assesses and ranks how each of the world’s largest ocean economies supports and develops blue (ocean-centric) technologies that help mitigate the impacts of climate change on ocean ecosystems and impact ocean-based technologies. resources to reduce greenhouse gases and other impacts of climate change.

To create the index, MIT Technology Review Insights compiled 20 quantitative and qualitative indicators for 66 countries and territories with coastal and maritime economies. It includes data set analysis and primary research interviews with global blue technology innovators, policy makers and international ocean sustainability organizations. Through a peer-review process of trend analysis, research, and consultation with several subject matter experts, weighting hypotheses are provided to determine the relative importance of each indicator’s impact on a country’s blue technology leadership.

These indicators measure how each country and territory’s economy and marine industries have impacted the marine environment, and how quickly technologies are being developed and adopted to help improve marine health outcomes. Policy and regulatory compliance factors were considered, particularly compliance with international agreements on fisheries and marine conservation.

The indicators are organized into four pillars that assess metrics within the theme of sustainability. Each indicator is rated on a scale of 1 to 10 (10 being the best indicator) and assessed for its contribution to the respective pillars. Each column is weighted to determine the importance of the total score. Because these research efforts are focused on countries developing blue technologies to support ocean health, the technology pillar is the highest, accounting for 50% of the total score.

The four pillars of the Blue Tech Barometer are:

Carbon emissions from marine activities and their relative growth. The metrics in this column assess each country’s efforts to reduce marine pollution and improve the health of marine ecosystems.

Efforts to promote sustainable fisheries and increase and maintain marine protected areas.

Progress in supporting the development of sustainable marine technologies in several related areas:

  • MIT Technology Review Insights’ Green Future Index 2022 Net Innovation Score.
  • Number of patents and technology start-ups related to maritime transport.
  • An assessment of the economic use of technologies and technology-based processes for marine sustainability.

Commitment to sign and implement international agreements to promote marine sustainability and implement sustainable fisheries.

about us

MIT Technology Review was founded in 1899 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT Technology Review Insights is the subscription publishing division of MIT Technology Review. We conduct qualitative and quantitative research and analysis globally and publish a wide range of content including articles, reports, infographics, videos and podcasts.

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